Abstract and Bios
- Benner, Till, Goethe University, Institute of comparative literature
Post-revolutionary Persian poetry- writing a new identity
Through studying Persian contemporary literature one has to recognize that whereas it differs in its style compared to western literature there are also references and similarities that make clear that there has been an exchange. Still, the use of metaphors and symbols is distinct. Not only is belief an important foundation of Persian literary production but through various cultural influences throughout history, unique metaphorical codes developed that seem to be difficult to access without knowledge of the cultural background. Many scholars focus on the role of female literature in the post- revolutionary Iran whereas it also seems to be interesting to compare pre- and post-revolutionary literature, both male and the female works. The question that arises is how poets reacted to the changes that took place through the revolution. The censorship made it necessary to establish a new set of symbols and a new figurative language. Still in form Persian writers seem to be very much aware of their heritage and try to find a way in reconciling their tradition, religion, and its authoritarian development, the influences from western culture and the freedom they experienced before the revolution. It seems as if Iran is going through a time where it is writing its new identity under oppression. Obviously, male and female literary expression differ in form and content. This research paper examines poetry as a unique and distinguishable Persian discipline from before and after the revolution, both male and female. In bringing out frequent topics and figurative language in recent poetic works from inside the Iran this paper is making the attempt to gain understanding and insight into contemporary Persian identity, how it perceives itself, what values it develops and maintains and how it relates to its past and the Islamic government.
- Dietrich, Stella, Goethe-Universität
Iranian Women’s Literature under Western Eyes
The eight to ten pages long paper will be based on the seminar “Iranian Women’s Literature“ held by Dr. Leila Rahimi Bahmany in winter term 2016/17 at Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main. The seminar dealt with the biographies and works of four selected pre-revolutionary female authors.
In the first part of the paper I plan to analyse the course literature and write a quite generic comparison of the biographies and works of the four authors: Bibi Khanom Astarabadi, Parvin E’tesami, Forugh Farrokhzad and Simin Daneshvar.
The second part of the paper will introduce feminist theory on ethnicity. The literature for this part of the paper will be two texts by Chandra Mohanty, one by Patricia Hill Collins, one by Sedef Gümen and one by Ina Kerner.
The third and last part of the paper will be to try connecting feminist theory to the lives and works of the Iranian women authors. This part will be for drawing analogies, signalling differences and raising questions.
What led me to plan writing a paper like this? I study cultural anthropology and political science. In my first semester I started taking interest in gender studies and enrolled myself in the gender studies certificate programme of the Cornelia-Goethe-Centre at the Goethe-Universität. This semester I took a course called “Introduction to Gender Studies” held by Dr. Minna-Kristina Ruokonen-Engler. In this course we were introduced to the issue of white feminism. It is said that academic feminism often referred to white western women who claimed to speak in the name of all women. In the eighties there was a turn with the introduction of postcolonial studies and Chandra Mohanty’s essay “Under Western Eyes“. From this point on, academic feminism and gender studies tried to include the views of non-white and non-western women into feminist theory. In our “Iranian Women’s Literature” class I was reminded of this gender studies discourse especially when we started reading the poems of Forugh Farrokhzad. I had difficulties understanding many of the metaphors the author uses and I believe that it has to do with the fact that I am a woman from a European cultural context whereas she is a woman from an Iranian cultural context. She for example uses her hands often as metaphors for herself. I would not have decoded this by myself. At this point I decided that it would be interesting to reflect exactly this different cultural background in my paper and I found that combining the title of our class with the title of the famous essay from Chandra Mohanty resulted in a title for this paper and also on a more contextual level it alludes to what I plan to do: summarize the content of the seminar “Iranian Women’s Literature“ and the feminist theory on ethnicity presented in “Introduction to Gender Studies“ to raise an anthropological question: How do I as a western woman read Iranian women authors and their literature?
Stella Dietrich is a student of cultural anthropology, gender studies and political sciences at the Goethe-University in Frankfurt, Germany. After growing up and graduating school in Berlin she did a four months intercultural exchange in the Philippines and moved to Frankfurt afterwards to attend university. On the topic of Iran and Iranian literature she has followed courses offered by Dr. Leila Rahimi-Bahmany and Dr. Homayun Alam. Her work centers on interdisciplinary approaches of cultural anthropology, gender studies and political sciences. For this conference she focussed on an intersection of gender studies and the scholarly literature on Iranian women authors. It is her first work on this topic.
- Hassani, Alireza (Alireza Abiz), (PhD), Poet, Translator, and Literary Critic
شعر معناگریز و داعیه ی مبارزه با قدرت
شعر ایران در دوران پس از انقلاب و به ویژه از دهه ی هفتاد شمسی به این سو تحولات شگرفی از سر گذرانده است. تنوع سبک ها و مکاتب شعری امروز ایران اگر نه بی نظیر، کم نظیر است همچنان که انبوهیِ شمارِ شاعران و آثار منتشر شده. نخستین نمونه های نوآوری در شعر را در مجموعه های منتشر شده در نیمه ی دوم دهه ی شصت می بینیم. با این همه، دوم خرداد ۷۶ سرآغاز تحولاتی گسترده تر و بنیانی تر است. رخدادهای سیاسی آن دوره نوید جامعه ای متکثر و به تَبَعِ آن ادبیاتی متکثر می دهد. نظریه های تازه ای وارد حوزه ی شعر فارسی می شوند. سپس آشفتگی های جنبش دانشجویی و قتل های زنجیره ای و آشوب های زیستی و ذهنی روشنفکران فرا می رسد و همه چیز را آشفته می کند. حال اگر کسی بخواهد به این رخدادها در شعر واکنش نشان دهد و با نظام مسلط وارد گفت و گوی انتقادی- اعتراضی بشود چه رویکردی باید پیشه کند؟ گروهی – در همان دوران و تا به امروز- راه مبارزه با اقتدار سیاسیِ حاکم را مبارزه با اقتدار زبان دانستند. از همین منظر به زبان یورش بردند. این گروه هر گونه معنای ممکن متن را منکر شدند. به تاسی از شاعران مکتب زبان، معنا را به خواننده سپردند و معناگریزی را بدیلی برای شورش علیه اقتدار سیاسی شمردند. اگر چه این شاعران و شارحان گرایش های مختلفی با سطوح ادبی متفاوتی را شامل می شوند می توان همگی را با تسامح طرفداران نگرش پسا مدرن به ادبیات دانست. در این گفتار من ماهیت این ادعا را بررسی می کنم. آیا شعر معناگریز ابزار مناسبی برای مبارزه ی سیاسی است؟ آیا اقتدار زبان مساوی اقتدار حاکمیت است؟ آیا بین پست مدرنیسم شعر معاصر ایران و ارتجاع ادبی پیوندی وجود دارد؟ رابطه ی این نوع شعر با کنش گری اجتماعی – سیاسی چیست؟ در دوگانه ی شعر ساده – شعر پیچیده، جایگاه این نوع شعر کجاست؟
Alireza Abiz is an Iranian poet, literary critic and translator. He studied English Literature in Mashhad and Tehran universities and received his PhD in Creative Writing –Poetry from Newcastle University in UK. Abiz has written extensively on Persian contemporary literature and culture. His research monograph, Censorship of Literature in Post-Revolutionary Iran: Politics and Culture since 1979 is forthcoming by I. B. Tauris. He has so far published three collections of poetry in Persian: Stop! We must get off, Spaghetti with Mexican Sauce and I Can Hear a Tree from My Desk. His fourth collection Black Line- London Underground will be published in Spring 2017. Abiz is an award-winning translator and has translated some leading English language poets including Basil Bunting, Derek Walcott, Allen Ginsberg and C.K. Williams into Persian. He has also worked in the media as a journalist and broadcast journalist and is currently working as an independent researcher in London.
- Jamali, Rosa, Poet
Geopolitics of Iran through national icons in Post-revolutionary Persian Poetry
Revolution, Iran-Iraq war, collapse of USSR, dead language of oriental Persian themes, disappointment of left-wing poets all together gave impetus to a new milieu in Persian poetry in which national icons took the place of repetitive oriental and utopian-socialist themes. Later Persian Poetry became familiar with a new identity of Iran as a heartland in the Middle East. All after the upheavals of war and revolution, a left-wing poet like Siavash Kasrai writes from the other coast of Caspian Sea; this particular poet was a member of Communist-Russia affiliated Tudeh Party, but the themes in his last poems are quite different as if he had just seen a different identity for his beloved homeland. War poetry depicts Persian Gulf, the River Karun and Arvand Rud… Quite a Mesopotamian landscape! It describes national icons through the sceneries of battlefield. Secular poets reminisce about other national icons like the landmarks of central Iran or mythological symbols, taking a step forward to rewrite a very original and historical concept of Iranian metropolis.
The Street before You Leave Tehran – Poem by Rosa Jamali
Facing the airport, all that’s now left in my grasp is a crumpled land that fits in the palm of my hand Facing the wavering sunbeams of a sun that is cross and will not speak with us. All the way from the salt sands of Dasht-e Lut, it came, a dream that made my fingers shift, that set my teeth on edge, a muted breeze, a whirlwind spun from the sand dunes all the way through the back alley of our house. Pasting together the cut up fragments of my face to make me laugh? A short leap, no longer than the palm of the hand, exactly the length you had predicted A huge grave in which to lay the longest night of the year to sleep “Sleep has quit our eyelids for other pastures, has dropped its anchor at the shores of garden ponds has lost the chapped flaking of its lips, poor thing.” Pasting together the cut up fragments of my face to make me laugh?
With scissors – snip, snip –they’re cutting something up. The alphabet shavings strewn on the ground, are they the letters of our name? With every other zig-zag, rigid and unyielding, in the middle of the salt dunes, flat and vast, did you cage my mother’s breath, her footprints fading in the shifting sands? Pasting together the cut up fragments of my face to make me laugh? No! … I will not return to the last street. I left behind a shoe, one of a pair, for you to put on and follow after me A strange shape forms facing the horizon… It fits in the palm of the hand! A big leap, beyond what three legs could manage, the length of the palm of the hand.
(Translated from original Persian to English by Franklin D. Lewis).
Rosa Jamali is an Iranian poet, translator and playwright. She studied Drama and Literature at the Art University of Tehran. Her debut collection of poems, This Dead Body is Not an Apple, It Is Either a Cucumber or a Pear, was published in 1997 and announced a major new voice in Iranian poetry. The book opened Persian poetry to new creative possibilities. That same year her second collection of poems Making a Face was published and well received by critics. This collection, with its stream-of-consciousness narrative poems, merged different types of discourses and registers – archaic, colloquial, written, formal, informal, journalistic, and scientific. Jamali adapted a kind of music from classical Persian poetry and imbued it with the natural cadences of speech, juxtaposing long and short sentences, infusing the whole with her bitter and distinctive sense of humour. Her third collection Making Coffee To Run a Crime Story was partly inspired by Sadegh Hedayat’s Blind Owl. Her most recent books are The Hourglass is Fast Asleep and Highways Blocked, which have been mentioned for combining present day setting with the myths and themes of Persian mystics. She has written numerous articles on Persian Poetry and introduced fresh ideas into poetry. She has been an accomplished member to both Iranian and International literary journals, festivals and events for about two decades.
- Kardgar, Hosein, University of Tehran
بررسی جریان های شعری و شاعران وابسته به موج نو پس از انقلاب اسلامی
در اوایل دهۀ چهل شمسی با انتشار مجموعۀ شعر ((طرح)) از احمدرضا احمدی جریانی با نام شعر موج نو در ادبیات معاصر نوگرای ایران شکل گرفت. شاعرانی عمدتا جوان که وضعیت شعر متعهد و نمادگرا و شعاری آن دوران را نمی پسندیدند ، به دنبال تجربه ای ناب در شعر با آزادی عمل کامل و گریز از اشعار کنایه آمیز و نمادگرا و متعهد دوران خود بودند. این تلاش ها و تقابل با شعر متعهد و اجتماعی در دوره های بعد نیز ادامه داشت و در گروه ها ، نحله ها و تقسیم بندی های دیگری با نام هایی چون شعر حجم،شعر دیگر،شعر ناب و شعر پلاستیک به حیات خود ادامه داد و شاید بتوان گفت فصل مشترک تمامی این شاعران و جریان ها تلاش آنها برای گسترش و تبیین شعری تجربی، ناب و مستقل و متفاوت از جریان های حاکم بر شعر دوران خود بوده است و همگی به نحوی به موج نوی اوایل دهۀ چهل گره خورده بودند. در این مقاله به بررسی وضعیت شاعران وابسته و وامدار به این جریان ها پس از انقلاب اسلامی و ویژگی های شعر آنان و رابطۀ آن با سنت پیش از انقلابی خویش و تاثیرپذیری از آن خواهیم پرداخت. ازاین بین به طور خاص می توان از شاعران جریان موج سوم نام برد که نخستین بار فرامرز سلیمانی در سال 66 از آن سخن گفت و همچنین شاعرانی ازجریان های نام برده که حیات ادبی آنان پس از انقلاب اسلامی نیز ادامه داشته است
Hosein Kardgar is an MA student in Persian language and literature at the University of Tehran. He is currently working on his MA thesis, entitled The Political Interpretation of Religion and Mysticism in Najm-al-din Razi Thoughts according to Mirsad-al-ebad and Marmuzat Asadi”.
- Khoshkhoosani, Seyede Pouye, University of Arizona, School of Middle Eastern and North African Studies
Ghazal-i Farā-Form Hāmid Ibrāhīmpour and Cinematic-Fictional Narration
In the twentieth century and by the time of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution the different poetic currents in Iran struggled between form and content. There was a group of scholars and poets, including Muhammad Taqī Bahār and Dehkhodā, who preferred to bring different aspects of modern life into classical forms. On the other hand, there was a group, including Mīrzādah-yi ‘Ìshqī, ‘Ārif and Farrukhī Yazdī, who extremely broke away from the traditional forms and content of classical poetry simultaneously. This controversy over form and content was moderated by Nīmā, who took into account the earlier efforts of poets including Shams Kasmā‘ī and J‘afar Khāmeneh in changing the form and content to establish what became known as New poetry. Hāmid Ibrāhīmpour demonstrated his first intentions towards creating new form of writing 90s where poets showed had interest in keeping the older forms. In this paper, by paying attention to Ibrāhīmpour’s ghazals, famous as ghazal-i farā-Form, I discuss the poetic techniques he applied in a series of dark and fragmented images to present subjects of Persian romanticism -love, affection, hate, and death. Although not a pioneer, Ibrāhīmpour by implementing the cinematic techniques especially flashbacks and cuts in classical forms added to the capacity of ghazal and masnavī in narration and depiction. Eloquent skills in Persian meters and rhymes, familiarity with history of cinema, and his deep sensitivity in imaging the mutual experiences of the Iranian youth allowed Ibrāhīmpour to write poem-stories, which are familiar to the Iranian youth, especially in years after the revolution.
Pouyeh KhoshkhoosaniI is a PhD Candidate in the school of Middle Eastern and North African Studies at the University of Arizona. Her fields of study include literary criticism, modern Persian poetry, Persian and Arabic medieval poetry, history and gender studies. She is mostly interested in examining the influences of Iranian socio-religious and historical circumstances upon the language of Persian poetry. Her dissertation titled Poetry, Power, Politics in the Safavid-Mughal Courts is focused on the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Persian poetry in Iran and India with specific attention to the notions of kingship and political legitimacy.
- Khosravi, Shahriar, University of Tehran, Faculty of Letters and Humanities, Department of Philosophy
Modern Persian Poetry: Poetics, Ideology and Philosophy
Tracing theoretical aspects of poets’ struggles in contemporary Iran, we face with countless controversial matters, which we can’t even mention all of them in an article like this. Here I want to reduce these struggles to three basic debates, each one belonging to a specific theoretical level and representing a famous theoretical antagonism: The first level is the poetical-rhetorical level in which we find people debating about ancient form/content dichotomy. The second one is related to another well-known topic, namely “committed literature” which parties arguing for and against. We can name this the ideological level. The final level is based on the subject/object distinction which has formed the most fundamental conflicts in metaphysics and epistemology since Descartes’ cogito appeared; we can call it the philosophical level. I am going to claim it is possible to discover typical correlations between sides of this conflicts and I would argue that the dominant Nima-ian trend has shaped the most pervasive correlation: the symbolist-committed-objectivist paradigm which is embodied in practice of Nima Yushij himself as commonly interpreted. Of course this dominant paradigm has been frequently attacked by different marginal groups like formalists, noncommitted poets or subjectivists and other correlations has shaped in the margins. The formalistnon committed-subjectivist picture has become dominant after 1979 Revolution. Here we discuss the issue by contrasting Nima-Yushij’s preface to Ayandeh’s collection of poems, The Final War (1952) with Reza Barahani’s theoretical appendix to his collection of poems; Addressed to Butterflies (1995).
Shahriar Khosravi is a poet, literary critic, and Social Commentator. He has a BA in Persian Litertaure and an MA in General Linguistics and is currently doing his decond M.A. degree in Philosophy. He launched his poetic career as a language-poet and published his first book, The Deconstructed Shahname (Tehran: Javaneh Toos Publications, 2011) in that style, but establishing an informal poetry-music band together with three other poets, he turned to the performance-poetry. His is also one of the founders of “School of Persian Poetry” in 2010. His Linguistics dissertation was entitled A Critical Investigation to The Philosophical Assumptions and Implications of Generative Linguistics . He is currently working on publishing two academic monograph: A Systematic Introduction to Contemporary Persian Poetry, Tehran: Fatemi Publications. (Forthcomings) and Modern Persian Poetry after Islamic Revolution: 1979-2006 (3 volumes). (Forthcomings)
- Ooryad, Sama, Shahid Beheshti University
Politics of Friendship in Matrod poetry movement or How Friendship Ignites Poetry
In September 2005, a group of friends in Iran signed a manifesto of poetry called Matrod (the Excluded) which went by the same name of their official website as well. Later, as the movement expanded, their friendship bonds also strengthened to the extent that they were writing poems in groups or they were addressing passionately to the friendship itself in their poems. Matrod poetry movement in Iran, although not active anymore, has been among the most influential poetry movements and its poets have also been among the prominent poets of contemporary Persian poetry. Yet, what is notable in this movement, during its activity, is its members’ emphasis on friendship and the way they have treated their poetry through their radical approach to friendship. Yadollah Royayi, arguably one of the first literary figures in Iran who has noticed the fact that friendship plays a seminal role in a generation’s creativity, complains in his book “Perishing Reason at the Time of Thinking” that friendship among poets in Iran has faded away or has been misunderstood. What the present research will argue is the survival of friendship and poetry through the poets and poetry of Matrod movement that happened during the years following the twenty first century in Iran. They wrote poems either together in groups or addressed each other in their poetry; therefore, by reading the Matrod movement, the research will argue that friendship is capable of igniting creativity.
Reza Baraheni’s Workshop and Community of Poets during the 1990s in Iran
During the 1990s, a workshop or as Shams Aghajani referred to it, ‘the Underground Workshop’ was formed in the basement of Reza Baraheni’s house in Tehran that consisted of poets and writers who were eager to learn about theorists and philosophers of the world. They claimed that their poetry movement breathes in a minority space. Although the community they formed had collective voices in it; it was rather a non-community. The impact that Baraheni’s underground workshop had on the literary spirit hovering over the decade is undeniable. However, in the present research it will be demonstrated that Baraheni was in fact “the master” of the so called poets of the seventies. Although the minority path that Baraheni and his students followed was a collective one, it will be shown that other issues should not be neglected. Mainly through Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari’s concepts of minor literature and mediators or writing for the people to come, the community of poets which became also known as ‘Language Poets of Iran’, is studied and analyzed. These concepts are rendered as critical radical concepts emphasizing collective aspects of literature. In the present research, the communality of the poets of the seventies will be studied; and it will be proved that, aside from the potentials each literary community carries with itself, the community of poets who excelled from Baraheni’s workshop consisted of individuals, each of whom trying to inscribe their own voice in Persian literature under the leadership of their master, Dr. Reza Baraheni.
Sama Ooryad holds a Master’s in English Literature from Shahid Beheshti University. Her dissertation was a comparative study of Language poetry movements of Iran and the United States with he help of Gilles Deleuze’s concepts of minor literature, rhizomic text and book as machine. In her dissertation, she analyzed major works of two poets from Iran (Reza Baraheni and Shams Aghajani) and two poets from the USA (Charles Bernstein and Ron Silliman) offered a novel reading of both movements. Ooryad has been writing poetry and reviews and translating poems and literary interviews which have been published in local websites and magazines.She has published a collection of her poems, Khabname-ye Peikari Hazin (Dream-vision of a Wretched Body) in Persian (Afraz Publications). She has been a member of Matrood (The Excluded) poetry movement since 2012.
- Parsapoor, Zahra, Faculty member of Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies, Tehran
بازتعریف مفاهیم اخلاقی در شعر معاصر فارسی با ملاحظات زیست محیطی
فضایل و رذایلی که در اخلاق سنتّی ما مطرح شده است، یا فینفسه به جامعۀ انسانی و روابط میان آنها مربوط میشود و یا برداشت و فهمی که ما از آنها داریم، انسانمحورانه است. بحران محیط زیست از سویی موجب شکل گیری مکاتب اخلاقی جدید با رویکرد بوم گرایانه شده است و از سوی دیگر هم در نظریههای مکتب تحلیلی و هم در نظریۀ تعمیمگرایی، تلاش میشود با گسترش و تعمیم مفاهیم و اصطلاحات اخلاق سنتی، اخلاق زیستمحیطی را نیز وجاهت و یا بخش مغفول آن را برجستگی بخشند. با بروز و ظهور مشکلات زیست محیطی در اشعار معاصر فارسی به ویژه اشعار سه دهه اخیر شاهد طرح شدن بعضی از دغدغه های اخلاق زیست محیطی در شعر شاعران جوان هستیم. تعمیم و بازتعریف مفاهیم اخلاقی و حقوقی یکی از شگردهای این شاعران در طرح موضوعاتی در حوزه اخلاق شکار، اخلاق زمین و اخلاق حیوانات است. در این مقاله به تحلیل نمونه هایی از اشعار معاصر با این رویکرد می پردازیم. ارائه این مفاهیم تازه می تواند شاعران را در زمره کنشگران مؤثر محیط زیست قرار دهد
Dr. Zahra parsapour graduted from the University of Tehran in Persian Literature, and is currently Associate Professor of Language and Litertaure at the Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies. She is the editor of contemporary literature magazine. . until now she has been working on manuscripts, literature and environment (ecocriticism) and ecofeminism. So far she has published more than 25 essays and 5 books and two of her books have been chosen as the book of year.
Raisi, Ehsan (Assistant Professor) and Taherinia, Ali (Graduate Student) Univeristy of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
بررسی تاثیر رسانه های جمعی بر تحول شعر پایداری انقلاب اسلامی ایران تا دهه هشتاد شمسی
یکی از علت های اجتماعی تطور و تحول شعر معاصر فارسی، گسترش استفاده از رسانه های اجتماعی -خصوصا از اوایل دهه هشتاد- است. با تعمیم نظریات خوشبینانه و بدبینانه نظریه پردازان حوزه ارتباطات به حوزه شعر، بعضی تحولات شعر معاصر ایران را می توان با توجه به تاثیرات مثبت و منفی رسانه های اجتماعی (از نسل وبلاگ ها تا شبکه های اجتماعی) بررسی کرد: تمایل به ابداع سبک شخصی؛ رواج نقد ترغیبی- تشویقی؛ و رشد کیفی جریان های شعر سپید، غزل پست مدرن و غزل نئوکلاسیک، در راستای تحول مثبت، و همچنین کم رنگ شدن شاخص های بومی شعر؛ انقطاع از میراث شعر فارسی (کلاسیک و نیمایی)؛ رواج کوتاه نویسی؛ و ضعف تالیف، در راستای تحول منفی شعر معاصر ایران قابل دسته بندی اند. پژوهش حاضر ابتدا با بررسی آثار پایداری دهه شصت، شعر پنج شاعر این دوره (سلمان هراتی، سید حسن حسینی، موسوی گرمارودی، قیصر امین پور، و علیرضا قزوه) را با اشعار برگزیده تعدادی از جشنواره های شعر دفاع مقدس دهه هشتاد شمسی مقایسه کرده است. سپس ضمن نشان دادن تحول فرمی و محتوایی شعر دهه هشتاد، تاثیر رسانه های اجتماعی بر تحول شعر پایداری این دوره را بررسی کرده است.
بررسی نقش غزل نئوکلاسیک در شعر پایداری بعد از انقلاب اسلامی ایران تا دهه هشتاد شمسی
رواج شعر آیینی و شعر جنگ (دفاع مقدس) پس از انقلاب اسلامی ایران با نوعی گرایش به قالب سنتی غزل، با محتوایی نو -که اصطلاحا آن را غزل نئوکلاسیک نامیده اند- همراه بود. این گونه از غزل در دهه چهل شمسی با شعر محسن پزشکیان، منوچهر نیستانی و دیگران شکل گرفت و با شعر حسین منزوی، محمدعلی بهمنی، قیصر امین پور و دیگران ادامه یافت و به کمال نزدیک شد. از دهه شصت شمسی، با حاکمیت گفتمان انقلاب اسلامی و بروز جنگ، غزل نئوکلاسیک درخدمت مفاهیم مذهبی- مبارزاتی قرار گرفت و به عنوان یکی از قالب های شعر پس از انقلاب، با اقبال بیشتری مواجه شد. شعر شاعران مطرح این دوره همچون: سید حسن حسینی، محمدکاظم کاظمی، علیرضا قزوه، قیصر امین پور، فرید اصفهانی و دیگران، نشان دهنده گرایش جدی به استفاده از این قالب است.
این مقاله ضمن بررسی آثار قیصر امین پور، محمدکاظم کاظمی، و فرید اصفهانی، به تحلیل غزل نئوکلاسیک، به عنوان یکی از قالب های شعر پایداری پس از انقلاب اسلامی پرداخته است، و ضمن مقایسه این قالب با دیگر قالب های شعر پس از انقلاب تا دهه هشتاد شمسی، دلایل گرایش بیشتر شاعران به قالب غزل نئوکلاسیک را به جای قالب نیمایی و بعضی قالب های شعر سنتی -که به همین اندازه ظرفیت طرح مفاهیم پایداری را داشته اند- برشمرده است. همچنین وجوه قوت و ضعف غزل نئوکلاسیک در ترویج گفتمان انقلاب اسلامی؛ و سپس نقش این قالب را میان سایر قالب ها -از جمله قالب شعر سپید- در انتقال مفاهیم مذهبی- مبارزاتی پس از انقلاب اسلامی به بحث گذاشته است.
دكتري زبان و ادبيات فارسي، گرایش ادبیات عرفانی ، دانشگاه اصفهان. استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه اصفهان. مدیر اجرایی “قطب علمی تحقیق در متون حکمی و عرفانی” دانشگاه اصفهان. عضو گروه پژوهشی “مطالعات بنیادی نسخهپژوهی” در “مرکز پژوهشی نسخه پژوهی و تصحیح متن” دانشگاه اصفهان. مدرس کارگاههای متعدد ملی و بینالمللی در زمینههای «متن کاوی و تحقیقات زبان و ادبیات فارسی» و «روش تحقیق در زبان و ادبیات فارسی». زمينههاي تحقيقي: متنکاوی(textmining) ، ادبيات عرفاني، نسخه پژوهی و تصحیح متن
علیرضا طاهری نیا
دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد زبان و ادبیات فارسی (گرایش پایداری)، مرحله پایان نامه، دانشگاه اصفهان. چاپ دو کتاب شعر کودک گروه سنی ب و ج، برگزیده چند جشنواره شعر منطقه ای و کشوری، فعال مطبوعاتی.
- Satvati Qale, Ali, University of Tehran
تبارشناسی بازگشتهای ادبی در شعر معاصر فارسی در ایران (1370-1390)
در حالی که تا دهه 70 خورشیدی روایتهای غالب درباره برآمدن گذشته شعر مدرن فارسی در ایران عمدتاً بر نقش نیما یوشیج و شاعرانی تاکید داشت که هر یک خود را وامدار او میدانستند، از این دهه به بعد رفته رفته توجه به چهره هایی همچون تندرکیا و ایرانی و جریانهایی همچون موج نو، شعر دیگر، شعر حجم و نظایر آنها جلب شد که ذیل گفتار نیمایی نمیگنجیدند. بازگشت چهره ها و جریانهای پیشتر حاشیه ای به مرکز مباحث ادبی نخست در متون کسانی اتفاق افتاد که نگاهی انتقادی به گفتارهای نوظهور شعری در دهه 70 داشتند؛ گفتارهایی که به زعم نمایندگانش غیرنیمایی یا پسانیمایی بود، اما ماحصلش از نظر این منتقدان تکرار تجربه های چهره هایی همچون تندرکیا و ایرانی تلقی میشد، بدون این که به این سابقه تاریخی اشاره کنند یا کارشان به دلیل نظریه زدگی در مقایسه با نمونه های پیشین «اصیل» بنماید. در ادامه، شاعران و منتقدانی که این گفتارها را نمایندگی میکردند، خود با اتکای غیرمستقیم به قرائتهای متنوع و غالباً التقاطی از نظریه های پساساختارگرا کوشیدند روایتهای تازه ای از گذشته شعر معاصر به دست بدهند. در پرتو چنین جدالی، بازخوانی گذشته چنان به گفتار غالب مطالعات ادبی معاصر بدل شد که دیگر به چهره ها و جریانهای پیشتر حاشیه ای محدود نمیشد؛ طوری که در همین چارچوب به تدریج نوعی گرایش به «بازگشت به نیما» نیز شکل گرفت. این جدال گرچه به سرعت فروکش کرد، اما بازگشتهای ادبی به عنوان رویکرد غالب ادبی همچنان ادامه یافت و حتا به تحقیقات ِ متعارف دانشگاهی سرایت کرد، بدون آن که دیگر متکی به جریانهای زنده انتقادی باشد، یا الزاماً وجهی نظری به خود بگیرد.
- Omid Shams, University of Portsmouth
Persian Poetry between Two Revolutions: Towards the politics of modern and postmodern Persian Poetry
Even before the new Persian Poetry was born in form of literary works, it appeared as a theoretical idea in the works of Taqi Rafat. Rafat drew a fine line between 1000 years of Persian Belle-lettres and the new era of Persian Literature by repeatedly emphasising on the socio-political identity of literature. The foundation upon which Rafat built his own theory of Persian literature was conceptualised as “absolute freedom in thinking and writing” which is undoubtedly political in its nature. More importantly, Rafat describes the literature as “a mirror in front of a nation’s civility”. Therefore, it seems that Rafat perceived the literature, in general, and Poetry, in specific, to be political in its essence, firstly, because of its inevitable interaction with the socio-political bases of the society, and secondly, because of its innovative nature and revisionist position toward the sovereignty of the established forms and structures of language in general and literary forms and styles in specific. The historical context within which Rafat’s literary theory emerged, that is, five years after the Constitutional Revolution and at peak of the uprising in Tabriz led by the Democratic Party, also reveals the dominance of the political rhetoric over the Iranian intellectual discourse of early twentieth century.
From this starting point, we can retrace two distinguished approaches toward new Persian poetry regarding the role of politics in poetry. The one theorised by Rafat and later by Nima, perceives poetry, for reasons mentioned above, to be political in its essence, regardless of its content. The second approach formulated by Freydoon Rahnema and practiced, promoted and perfected by Ahmad Shamlou, perceives poetry to be imperfect unless it adopts a clear and emancipating political position which is reflected and expressed in the content. This paper assesses these two major literary trends within the context of two major revolutions in Iranian contemporary history and establishes a critical account of new Persian poetry with a focus on the contradicting conceptions of political poetry and politics of poetry. It then makes a controversial claim that the recent movement of Language Poetry is not a result of a break from Nima’s theory of new poetry but on the contrary the logical continuance of Nima’s fundamental position toward the politics of poetry as opposed to Shamlou’s idea of political poetry that marginalised Rafat and Nima’s project of new of Persian poetry and dominated the Iranian literary scene in the last two decades that led to the revolution 1979.
Omid Shams is a PhD researcher in University of Portsmouth graduated in English literature and American studies. He is a poet, literary critic and literature researcher. He was the writer-in-residence in Denmark under the ICORN program for writers at risk and is an honorary member of Danish PEN. His works as a poet and literary theorist are prominent among the first generation of the recent Persian literary movement known as Language Poetry.
- Sonboldel, Farshad, Poet, University of St Andrews (PhD Student)
Major Debates within and about post-revolutionary Persian poetry
After the Iranian revolution in 1979 and during the past four decades, Persian poetry was a battle for at least two major groups of poets. In the first decade and during the Iran-Iraq war intellectual poets related to pre-revolutionary movements were trying to show the “the revolutionary poetry” is not what their rivals, that is governmental poets, compose. After a while, in 1990’s the former group divided to two parts. First, advocates of so called “post-modern poetry” who were either related to Dr. Reza Barahani’s workshops or another group of young poets mostly from provinces. Secondly, modernist poets who were followers of the last generation of intellectual poets. The last polarity of views in the history of modern Persian poetry may be between the whole intellectual part of the poetry and a new movement in 2000’s namely “Sadeh Nevisi” (simple poetry composing). The later movement’s advocates were a combination between those two groups of poets which had the major antagonism toward each other during the first decade after the revolution. In this paper, I am trying to illustrate how the opposition among independent intellectual parts of the literature and the dependent or believer governmental parts has influenced on creation of movements and crisis during the last four decades.
Farshad Sonboldel holds a Master of Arts in Persian Language and Literature from the University of Tehran. His doctoral research is on Marginal Pioneer Poetry between the 1850s and 1960s in Iran. He has published a collection poetry under the name of “Metropolis” and a research on Tondarkia under the title of “a report on Tondarkia’s works” in 2015.